Vol. 1 (2016), Issue 1

ORIGINAL ARTICLES

 

Teodor Dima   -PHILOSOPHY--------

„Gheorghe Zane” Institute of Economic and Social Research

Strategii euristice / Heuristic Strategies
Keywords: heuristic strategies, assimilation, inspiration, theoretical construction, Principia Mathematica

This article presents the steps of a heuristic strategy: 1) preliminary preparation (assimilation, penetration, information gathering through different universal procedures, such as: studying, reading, travels, discussions, observations, etc.); 2) inspiration (working and/or scientific hypotheses, proposing new concepts, definitions, comparisons, experiences, motivations, demonstrations); 3) decantation (calculate, make use of inferences and of logical and methodological procedures); 4) composition or construction (synthesis, inspiration, imagination, analogies, criticism, self-criticism, final conclusions, elaboration of treatises and/or theories etc.). We show that discovery and invention include elements of logic, mathematics, methodology, psychology, favorable events, etc. We distinguished two heuristic strategies drawing on Max Plank’s construction of quantum physics and on Bertrand Russell’s and A.N. Whitehead’s transformation of logic into a formal system.

 

Iovan Marțian   -LAW---------------------

„Vasile Goldiş” Western University of Arad

The Problem of Truth in Prescriptive Statements
Keywords: imperative statements, legal texts, truth, demonstration, justice

This article argues the need to address the law, that is, the legal prescriptions, with reference to alethic criteria. Even though they have an imperative meaning, legal norms and prescriptive sentences cannot elude the problem of truth. Legal norms generally emerge from certain knowledge and real experience, which are embedded in laws and in the way in which legal texts are written. The rationale undertaken by the author converges into demonstrating that the aim of carrying out justice and the functioning of the legal system in a society are unconditionally reliant on finding the truth. These aims are the result of coherent, true, necessary, and sufficient knowledge.

 

Lavinia Andreea Bejan   -LAW---------------------

Romanian Academy, Iași Branch

Extinderea aplicării Convenției Europene a Drepturilor Omului în chestiuni privitoare la azil: Protecția prin ricoșeu / Extending the Application of the European Convention on Human Rights Regarding Asylum: Protection ‘par ricochet’
Keywords: the European Convention on Human Rights, the European Court of Human Rights, the right to asylum, protection par ricochet

The so-called ‘refugee crisis’ caused multiple discussions regarding the European Union, its ability to react, legislative flaws, belated or insufficient institutional reactions, as well as the existence and nature of some specific obligations assumed by the member states or imposed on them. In this context, the status of EU members as states party to the European Convention on Human Rights deserves a careful consideration. The European Convention on Human Rights does not contain a separate article regarding asylum or the refugee status, a ‘right to asylum’. However, as early as 1989 the Strasbourg Court extended its competence over certain matters regarding asylum and asylum seekers beyond its forms of direct protection, which couldn’t have interfered with a state’s right to decide on returning an individual in a third state. The Court thus granted protection to aliens when states party decide to return by deportation, expulsion, or extradition an individual in a third state in which he risks grave violations of human rights as recognized by the Convention. This paper provides an overview of this particular type of protection, referred to in the doctrine as ‘protection par ricochet.’ We analyze some of the main decisions of the European Court of Human Rights, as well as the effects of these decisions on the states member of both the European Union and the ECHR.

 

Ana Maria Hojbotă   -PSYCHOLOGY-------

Romanian Academy, Iași Branch

Implicit Theories of Moral Character: Effects on Moral Evaluation and Distributive Preferences in Dictator Game
Keywords: implicit theories of moral character, prosecutor mindset, culpability, moral evaluation, allocation decisions, dictator game

Previous research documented the effect of beliefs about social order and immutability of moral character on moral evaluation. These beliefs amplify the orientation towards severe moral judg-ments, with a preference for retribution instead of rehabilitation. In the present study, we aimed to check for interactive effects of these beliefs on punishment and distributive preferences. We investigate whether social cynicism plays a role in this relation, since trust in institutions and people is a factor that may bias people’s definition of what is fair and what is not. We found that beliefs about the immutability of moral character accentuate the prosecutor mindset and generate greater attribution of blame.

 

Eugen Huzum   -PHILOSOPHY--------

„Gheorghe Zane” Institute of Economic and Social Research

Realismul în filosofia politică: un moralism deghizat / Realism in Political Philosophy: Moralism in Disguise
Keywords: moralism, realism, political philosophy, moral values and principles, political legitimacy, politics, domination

The paper is an intervention in the dispute about the moralism of the recent realist trend in political philosophy. It is particularly focused on analysing the debate on this subject between Niklas Erman and Eva Möller (2015a; 2015b) and Robert Jubb and Enzo Rossi (2015a; 2015b). Examining the main arguments of both parties, I argue that realists (i.e., Jubb and Rossi) lost the debate, that realism is, in fact, moralism in disguise, and that its main methodological request – giving up „pre-political” moral principles and values in political philosophy – is „unrealistic” (i.e., unfeasible).

 

Emanuel Copilaș   -POLITICAL SCIENCE--------

The West University of Timișoara

Inegalități economice și sociale în Uniunea Europeană: o perspectivă de ansamblu / Economic and Social Inequalities in the European Union: A General View
Keywords: convergence, divergence, integration, cohesion policy, threats

The European Union is, no doubt, at a major political crossroad. Inequalities among its regions and member states are still alarmingly high, despite the considerable efforts made through cohesion policy to reduce them. The immigration crisis amplifies these inequalities, also generating major political outcomes, like Great Britain’s decision to renounce its EU membership. This article offers a general perspective over the European project starting from the premise that the EU’s growing economic coherence is not doubled by the same level of political coherence. The future of the EU itself depends on elaborating, as quickly as possible, a much needed political form and thus making it able to tackle more successfully the whole set of challenges that lies ahead.